Sunday, May 24, 2020

Marketing Strategy - 784 Words

5. Marketing means solving problems of how best to meet customer needs. What were the mistakes Afjuz made in its former approach to marketing? What marketing strategy should Afjuz adopt to improve its performance on the British market? Give your reasons. Marketing is a mix of activities involved in getting goods from the producer to the consumer. The producer is responsible for the design and manufacture of goods. Early marketing techniques followed production and were responsible only for moving goods from the manufacturer to the point of final sale. Now, however, marketing is much more pervasive. In large corporations the marketing functions precede the manufacture of a product. They involve market research and product development,†¦show more content†¦As it turned out after 2,5 years all the attempts of the agency to boost sales, to enlarge a market share and heighten the popularity of the brand failed. They managed to rich just 0,8% share of the market (in contrast to predicted 3% within 3 years period) serving  £0,5 mln of the market sales (for comparison the total market worth is estimated about  £50 mln). Preparing the expansion for the British market Marketing Board made a number of mistakes. The first and may be even the most serious false step was that they had not carried a thorough and all-round research and analysis of the received data. In order to realize and implement an efficient marketing strategy it is necessary to observe marketing management principles which include: planning, organizing, directing, and controlling decision making. Oranges consider to be problem products in the view of distribution and sells – it is very difficult for the producer to inform potential customers of some unique features and difference from the competitors’ fruits. Moreover it is an extremely complicated task for the customer to identify and distinguish oranges of the concrete grower. Another and very important fact is that the world citrus-fruit market is shared among a group of large and well-organized producers who unwillingly agree to affiliate a new player. Marketing Board also did not take into consideration the popularityShow MoreRelatedCorporate Responsibility and Marketing Strategies1838 Words   |  8 Pagesï » ¿ Corporate Responsibility and Marketing Strategies Wanda Joyce McGhee Dr. Malinda Swigart Business 508 July 13, 2014 Corporate Responsibility and Marketing Strategies There is no question that Apple is a remarkable company. In addition to its business turnaround, its innovative design, and its media content and apps, the unadulterated  sexiness of all its products makes Apple hard to resist. For me, what isn’t hard to resist, is asking: How can a company that is this extraordinaryRead MoreThe Marketing Strategy Of Walmart1496 Words   |  6 Pagesrecognition by consumers escalate to never before seen heights. Because of this brand recognition, it has become important for businesses to design their websites to reflect their overall marketing strategies. This is especially important in the retail world. All retail businesses have a similar overall marketing strategy of generating sales and retaining the customer for future sales. Most of the retail giants still greatly rely on the success of their brick and mortar stores to turn a profit. HoweverRead MoreDells Marketing Strategy1802 Words   |  8 Pagesalways been careful in sustaining i ts marketing strategy of providing standard-based computing solutions (Official Website 2004). Today Dell is the third largest computer manufacturer in the world. On January 2004 Dell reports net revenue approximately $41,444 millions and 46000 employees (Annual report 2004). Marketing Environment Dells strategy is global. It realizes that being closer to the customers is essential in carrying out its marketing strategies as well as in enabling it to build customerRead MoreMarketing Strategy1138 Words   |  5 PagesChapter 1 Marketing in Today’s Economy Exercise 1.1 CarsDirect 1. Explore the CarsDirect website, including pricing a vehicle of your choice. How successful is CarsDirect in reducing the hassles associated with buying an automobile? 2. Does the design of the CarsDirect website convey confidence and trust in the car buying process? How has CarsDirect answered consumers’ concerns over the lack of a human element in their marketspace? Exercise 1.2 DaytonaRead MoreMarketing Strategies For A Marketing Strategy1235 Words   |  5 PagesMarketing strategies A marketing strategy is a description of goals that need to be achieved with marketing efforts. A marketing strategy is normally formed by an organizations business goals. Business goals and a marketing strategy should go hand-in-hand. A marketing strategy should consist of a clear goal of what has to be done, informing consumers about the product or services being offered, and also informing consumer of differentiation factors. The 4 P’s of marketing Marketing is a businessRead MoreMarketing Strategies For The Marketing Strategy1453 Words   |  6 Pagestrue cost of production for the particular products and services are not known to the customers. Instead, they feel the worth of a product from their sense of feeling and decide to buy it even on higher price. Therefore producers chase such marketing strategies which help them to set huge perceived value for their product or service and in this way they are able to get high prices for their products in the market (Sweeney et al., 1999). Perceived value is mostly used by companies who manufactureRead MoreMarketing Strategies For A Marketing Strategy1177 Words   |  5 Pagescompanies in marketing has become more intense. Practice effective marketing strategies is very important for most of the companies who want to be successful and to become leaders in marketing. Strategy is part of marketing techniques that combine all the market goals which are the company needs to make a completed plan in order to increase sales and maintain customers (Bennie, 2016). Marketing strategies have been extensively studied in the marketing area. For example, marketing strategy was discussedRead MoreMarketing Strategies Of The Marketing Strategy Essay1527 Words   |  7 PagesThe Marketing Strategies that were exercised by eBay which contributed to its success. 1. Definition of the Marketing Strategy Grewal and Levy (2010: p.32) states that â€Å"a marketing strategy identifies a firm’s target market(s), a related marketing mix - their four P’s and the bases upon which the firm plans to build a sustainable competitive advantage†. Kotler and Keller (2012: p.274) further argues that ‘the marketing strategy is built on segmentation, targeting, and positioning (STP) and a companyRead MoreMarketing Plan For A Marketing Strategy909 Words   |  4 PagesA marketing plan is crucial to the survival of an organization. Marketing plans need to be well thought out and target a certain market. The market that an organization chooses will demonstrate what direction they want the organization to head in. However, choosing just one market will be problematic to the organization because they will be missing out on other opportunities to grow. The organization needs to operate like the old sane, kill two birds with one stone. Therefore, if an organizationRead MoreMarketing Strategy : Marketing Strategies871 Words   |  4 PagesPurpose and Overview The purpose of this case analysis report for Mistine, direct selling in Thailand Cosmetic Market looks into the marketing strategies focus. The report includes external opportunities and threats as well as strengths that are to be discussed here. The external opportunities include new markets and new product and service development. External threats include growing competition and lower profitability external business risks. The weakness are high prices are possible

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Manual Blood Pressure Techniques Essay - 1662 Words

Introduction Manual blood pressure techniques are compounded with many factors that may affect the measurement (Myers, 2010). Patient anxiety and poor blood pressure measurement technique by the health professional can result in a misdiagnosis and improper drug treatment (Myers, 2010). The mercury sphygmomanometer has been â€Å"gold-standard† for measuring blood pressure since it’s invention in 1881 (Ostchega et al, 2011). However, mercury is now considered to be an environmental risk and many hospitals and clinical practices worldwide have banned the use of mercury (Myers, 2010). There are now many mercury free alternatives to the sphygmomanometer such as the aneroid sphygmomanometer, digital monitors like the x or ambulatory blood†¦show more content†¦Manufacturers usually make claims on the accuracy of their devices, however, decisions on which device to use should be based solely on international protocols and peer-reviewed journals (Beevers et al, 2007). Auscultatory methods The auscultatory method involves the use of a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope to listen to Korotkoff sounds and determine the systolic and diastolic arterial pressure (Kapse Patil, 2013). The mercury and aneroid sphygmomanometers are two types of devices that use auscultatory methods to measure blood pressure (Buchanan, 2009). Mercury and Aneroid Sphygmomanometers The mercury sphygmomanometer is a simple and highly accurate method of measuring blood pressure (Tholl et al, 2004). However, the risk of toxicity of mercury to the patient and those that use and service the devices, has seen mercury sphygmomanometers phased out in most clinical settings (Beevers et al, 2007). Aneroid devices have replaced mercury sphygmomanometers in many medical facilities (Beevers et al, 2007). They are similar to mercury sphygmomanometers in that they both have an inflation/deflation system, an occluding bladder, a cuff and both measure blood pressure by ausculation with a stethoscope to listen to Korotkoff sounds (O’Brien, 2003). They are portable which makes them vulnerable to physical damage causing them to be less accurate in their measurements (A’Court et al, 2011). It is for this reason that aneroid devices need regular maintenanceShow MoreRelatedUse Of Manual Therapy Treatments For Patients With Neck Pain Essay744 Words   |  3 PagesReviewer #3: Thank you for the opportunity to review this paper. The research question is valuable with respect to the use of manual therapy treatments for patients with neck pain. The ability to ascertain the effects of mobilization on blood pressure has not had a lot of attention and therefore the research brings new knowledge to the topic. The outcome of the research indicating a reduction in systolic BP with a unilat PA mobilization is also of interest and in contrast to other research, evenRead MoreManual Therapy And Treatment Therapy1154 Words   |  5 PagesManual Therapy In recent years, combining Western medicine with alternative or complementary treatment has become very popular. Complementary and Alternative Medicine, CAM, are composed of herbal medicine, acupuncture, yoga, and manual therapy just to name a few. This paper will focus on Manual Therapy. What is Manual Therapy? Examples of Manual Therapy techniques and what they are used to treat. Who can practice Manual Therapy and what kind of education is needed Also a case study where ManualRead MoreNvq3 Unit 4222 Essays1007 Words   |  5 PagesUndertake agreed pressure area care Outcome 1: Understand the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relation to pressure area care 1. Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores or pressure sores are injuries of the skin and underlying tissue. They appear when the affected area of skin is under too much pressure. Due to the pressure the blood flow is disrupted, the area does not irrigate, therefore nutrients and oxygen do not reach the skin cells. The skin then breaks and pressure ulcers form Read MoreCauses And Treatment Of Lymphatic Massage1567 Words   |  7 Pagesthoracic duct back to the blood circulation. In the 18th century it was discovered that the whole body contained lymph vessels and that the task of the lymph vessel system is to absorb tissue liquid. Vodder and his wife moved to Paris, France in 1933 to practice the modality on his patients (Wittlinger, 2004). The concept of lymph drainage by massage therapy is similar to opening a valve of a tube filled with water and allowing the water to flow into another tube to release pressure and alleviate buildRead MoreCritique Of The American Geriatrics Society1662 Words   |  7 Pagesthis study being conducted is provided by the authors. Literature Review The previous research articles and their outcomes are briefly described with different amounts of time from 1-3 minutes after individual is standing before a decrease in blood pressure of 10-20mmHg would occur and be related to a fall. The purpose â€Å"was to assess the association between hypertension, OH using multiple definitions, and their combination and the risk of recurrent falls in a community-dwelling elderly population†Read MorePressure area care1699 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿Unit 4222-229 Undertake agreed pressure area care (HSC2024) Karen Yardley Outcome 1 understand the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relation to pressure area care 1.1 describe the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relation to skin breakdown and the development of pressure sores. The skin is the largest organ of the body, covering and protecting the entire surface of the body. The total surface area of the skin is around 3000sq inches dependingRead MoreMedical Monitors for the Heart and Brain892 Words   |  4 Pageslines (A-lines) are a monitoring device inserted into arterial vascular system that is used to assess blood pressure. A transducer in the device is used to translate the arterial pressure into electrical impulses (Kaur, 2006). It secures the most accurate and precise measurements on a continuous basis by obtaining intra-arterial pressure. These factors, over the manual and non-invasive blood pressure cuffs, makes the A-line advantageous particularly in patients that are receiving vasodilator/vasoactiveRead MoreThe Effect Of Lymphedema On Cancer Survivors Quality Of Life989 Words   |  4 Pagestherapeutic exercises, and pharmacotherapy [19]. Complete Decongestive Therapy (CDT), a multi-modality approach which is the â€Å"gold standard† for lymphedema treatment, is one of the most common forms of treatment. This therapy includes various techniques such as manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), external compression garments and bandages, skin care, and exercises guided by specially-trained therapists [5, 19]. CDT includes two phases. In Phase I, acute management takes place in an outpatient clinic settingRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Acute Coronary Syndrome1231 Words   |  5 PagesAcute Coronary Syndrome Megan Kehn Nursing 250 Delta College Disease Process Research has demonstrated that thrombus formation from an abrupt rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, which equates to diminished or complete termination of blood flow through the coronary artery, is the most common cause of an acute coronary event (EBP guidelines). The symptoms from the events are referred to as acute coronary syndrome, or ACS, and encompass the range of myocardial ischemic states that includes unstableRead MoreBirth Of A Diabetic Mother1530 Words   |  7 PagesAbortion Definiton Non-induced embryonic or fetal death or passage of products of conception before 20 weeks gestations (Spontaneous Abortion: Merck Manuals) Causes According to Merck Manuals: Some viruses (herpes, parvo, rubella), chromosomal abnormalities, immunologic abnormalities, major trauma, uterine abnormalities Risk Factors According to Merck Manuals: Women over the age of 35, women with a history of spontaneous abortions, cigarette smoking, ETOH use, recreational drug use, high doses of caffeine

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Smoking in pregnancy Free Essays

string(101) " 15 cigarettes a day have 15 times greater risk of dying from SID compared to babies of non-smokers\." Introduction The purpose of this essay is to identify a public health issue with a woman I cared for in practice. Using a health promotion model to critically analyse the woman’s needs and outline the midwifery care given to address the issue. Discussing health promotion, theories influencing midwife practice and the role of the midwife in public health and health promotion. We will write a custom essay sample on Smoking in pregnancy or any similar topic only for you Order Now For the purpose of maintaining confidentiality in accordance with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) the code: standards of conduct performance and ethics for nurses and midwives (NMC 2008), the pseudonym Miss will be used to refer to my client. Different source of literature will be used to support my discussion throughout the essay. Scenario Miss Yardley, a young woman of white British origin, twenty one year old primipara, eleven weeks plus four days gestation according to her last menstrual period. She attended the maternity booking clinic with her long term partner for history taking. She lived with her partner in a private accommodation though recently both she and her partner had moved in with her mother who lives in a council rented apartment, as they could no longer afford payment for their flat. She was unemployed due to a recent redundancy from the company she had worked in since leaving secondary school aged sixteen. Her partner is employed but on a low paid salary as a call centre operator. On several occasions she had searched for new employment with no success. She expressed not to have any medical or obstetric problems. Miss Yardley expressed that she used to drink alcohol only on social occasions but stopped when she became aware of the pregnancy. She willing expressed when asked regarding smoking t hat she smoked up to fifteen cigarettes a day or more depending on how she was feeling emotionally. She tried quitting on one occasion though due to overwhelming personal issues at the time was unable to give up smoking. Her partner never smoked but her mother smoked up to ten cigarettes a day. She expressed willingness to quit smoking but felt worried that she may not be able to completely give up as she tends to be drawn to smoke more when stressed and now that she is unemployed there is more time available for her to smoke. The public health issue from the case study The importance of smoking as a public health issue has been identified in various key policies and strategy papers. The government white paper on tobacco 1998: smoking kills targets pregnant women as a priority group requiring intervention. According to the Department of Health (a smoke free future) ‘smoking remains one of few modifiable risk factor in pregnancy’ (DH, 2010, p.22), it states that smoking rates are highest in routine and manual groups, lower socioeconomic groups and certain minority and vulnerable groups. In the mid 1950 smoking levels between socioeconomic groups were similar, however since the 1960 onwards the more advantaged socioeconomic group acted in response to increasing evidence about the harmful effects of tobacco use (DH 2011). Figure 8 (in appendix) in the strategy shows correlation between the prevalence of smoking and net income. Therefore reducing smoking rates in these groups of people has been identified as a critical factor in reducin g health inequalities. The good practice guide 3 (Public health agency 2010) also indicates a clear link between smoking in pregnancy and social disadvantage, it states evidence indicates while women know that tobacco use is damaging their health, for many smoking is a means of coping with poverty, disadvantage and lack of control over aspects of life. In contribution to social disadvantage, the highest prevalence of smoking is noted in the 20-34 age group (Office for National Statistics (ONS), 2006).The most recent white paper Healthy lives, healthy people (DH 2011) sets to reduce national rates in smoking amongst pregnant women to 11 percent from the current 2009/10 rate of 14 percent. It states that tobacco smoking remains one of the most significant public health challenges in England. Cost Smoking has remained prominent in public health globally and it continues to be a major factor for health inequalities in the UK. The world health organisation (WHO), 2011) states over the cause of the 21th century, tobacco use could kill a billion people or more unless urgent action is taken. The need for support identified in various literature and government strategy to enable pregnant women to maintain healthy lifestyles during and after pregnancy has impacted in my decision to identify smoking as a public health need for my client. Impact of smoking in pregnancy Maternal smoking is not only harmful during pregnancy but has a long term effects on the baby after birth, 4000 chemicals of which some are marked irritant properties and some 60 are known or suspected to be carcinogenic can be found in tobacco smoke (WHO, 2004). Some of the risk associated with smoking during pregnancy includes intrauterine growth restriction, placenta previa, and abruptio placentae (Vanderhoeven and Tolosa 2010). Poor outcomes such as preterm rupture of membranes, low birth weight and perinatal mortality have been highlighted (Vanderhoeven et al, 2010). Lagan and Casson 2010, indicates smoking to be associated with increased risk of miscarriage, respiratory problems for the child and sudden infant death (SID). Research carried out by University College London (UCL) concluded that babies born to women who smoke are at increased risk of having certain birth defects such as missing or deformed limbs, clubfoot, gastrointestinal, skull and eye defects and cleft lip o r palate (Campbell 2011). Babies born of mothers who smoke have frequent respiratory problems at birth and in their first year, they are at risk of developing asthma and a higher rate of stillbirth is noted (Viccars, 2009). Miss Yardley smokes 15 or more cigarettes a day and her mother is also identified as a smoker, this puts the unborn baby at risk of effects due to direct smoking and passive smoking. Mitchell et al (citied in Viccars, 2009) states that babies of women who smoke 15 cigarettes a day have 15 times greater risk of dying from SID compared to babies of non-smokers. You read "Smoking in pregnancy" in category "Essay examples"Further research showed a link between smoking during pregnancy and low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in children whose mother’s smoked whilst pregnant. It concluded that they had 10-15 percent risk of experiencing heart disease compared to children with non smoking mothers (Health express, 2011). From the discussion above it is evident the issue of smoking would need to be addressed at each opportunity with Miss Yardley when providing care and advice. This would enable screening and monitoring of smoking status, education on the effects of smoking to the outcome of her pregnancy and adequate support to ensure effects to pregnancy and the general health of mother and baby is eradicated or minimised. Health promotion models WHO defines health promotion a process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve, their health. It implies that the ideology moves beyond a focus on individual behaviour towards a wide range of social and environmental interventions. Naidoo and Wills (2010), states ‘health promotion is based on theories about what influences people’s health and what are effective interventions or strategies to improve health. There are five different approaches to health promotion, medical, behaviour change, educational, client approach and societal change approach (Scriven 2010). Different health promotion models have been developed to enable a planned intervention to improve health. Tannahill model (Downie et al 1996 citied in Naidoo and Wills 2009), addresses health promotion over three overlapping spheres of activity, preventive education, prevention and health protection. The model suggest that all approach interlink, in practice this could be difficult to implement and due to the overlapping of spheres, focus on what needs to be achieved could be confused. The prevention sphere of the model relies mainly on the medical approach , Barnes (2009) suggest that medical approach could be perceived as a top down approach and that when providing health promotion intervention client involvement is necessary to help maintain individual focus (client centred care). In comparison, the Tones model which is an empowerment model sets to enable people to gain control over their own health (citied in Naidoo and Wills, 2009). ‘Tones consider education to be the key in empowering both lay and professional people’ (Naidoo et al 2009).The empowerment approach relies on educating client and the information conveyed would be highly medicalised to show importance of the issue. In relation to Miss Yardley who has tried but failed to quit smoking, empowering her through the use of education to convey the risk of smoking though unavoidable as a health professional, could have a counter active effect. Dunkley (2000), states that the aim of mass campaign is to raise awareness, however it may increase feeling of guilt and stress which may be relieved by the aid of another cigarette. Therefore the effectiveness of this model’s approach for my client is questioned. Tones and Tannahill model both mainly makes use of the medical and educational approach, this makes it difficult to address socioeconomic factors that have documented risk with smoking. As my clients issue is related to smoking and there is a socioeconomic factor present, it would be inapplicable to use these models of health promotion. During the booking appointment, Miss Yardley willing expressed to have tried quitting with no success and that she would like to quit though factors such as not having a job contributed to her smoking. ‘Nicotine addiction is identified as a major factor for women continuing to smoke during pregnancy’ (Lagan et al 2010). There is a link between stress and the use of tobacco as a relieve method. Gorman (2008) states ‘that smoking represents a significant challenge for pregnant women, as it compounds the stress of pregnancy and may be further complicated by additional factors such as disadvantage’. McCurry et al 2002 (citied in Lagan et al 2010) also indicates smoking to be a mechanism of coping with disadvantage, stress and perceived lack of control over life. According to Earp and Ennett (1991) an ecological perspective implies that behaviour results from interaction of both individual and environmental factors (Citied in Lagan et al, 2010). Various lite ratures have made use of behaviour model when planning intervention for smoking. Prochaska and DiClemente’s trans-theoretical model (Naidoo et al, 2009); will be used to manage the care of Miss Yardley. The model describes the process of change; it is derived from their work on encouraging change in additive behaviours (Naidoo el at, 2009). This model is applicable to my client has it addresses her behaviour which is the main attribute in smoking and enables a woman centred approach. Woman centred care is expressed as choice, control and continuity of care in the Changing Childbirth report (DH, 1993 cities in Leap 2009).Behavioural change approach enables the use of communication and counselling, empowerment, decision making, fostering community groups and social support networks (Dunkley 2000). The process of change includes precontemplation, contemplation, preparing to change, making change and maintenance. The woman’s needs and midwifery care involved All care given was in accordance with the National institute for health and clinical excellence (NICE, 2010): public health guidance 26. Precontemplation: in this stage change to lifestyle has not been considered. Miss Yardley has progressed from this stage has she identified willingness to try quitting. This shows the limitation of the model when used with an individual who is thinking of changing. Contemplation: the individual is thinking about change. The client’s willingness indicated readiness for change, adequate information was giving during the booking appointment through leaflets and other forms of resources. Due to the step by step structure of the model, it was easy to identify the stage of change. Preparing to change: Miss Yardley has read all the information given and had taken up the referral. Though she continued to smoke but expressed to have cut down to 10 cigarettes a day. This shows the effectiveness of the model, though she is not at the point of change the use of counselling and information regarding risk has empowered some form of change. Making the change: a date was choose. She had cut down from 10 to about 8 a day depending on her moods; she maintained her appointment with the specialist. Maintenance: there is a possibility of relapse at this stage as change is not a smooth process (Naidoo et al, 2009). In Miss Yardley’s case change would have to be assessed through to the postnatal period, in order to determine adequate health improvement.According to At booking, Miss Yardley’s pregnancy was considered low risk, which meant that her care was given mainly in the community. Her exposure to smoking was identified through discussion. Carbon monoxide test was not carried out as it is unavailable in the located hospital. Information regarding the risk of smoking in pregnancy to her and the unborn child was explained and information leaflets and contact numbers to relevant smoking services given. Passive smoking was addressed and the effects pointed out. The benefits of stopping smoking to her health and that of the pregnancy outcome were highlighted, financial benefit was also explained. The need to quit, rather than cut down was explained. Informed consent was given and referral made to the community smoking cessation midwife. Encouragement and praise was given at this stage. As she identified her mother to be a smoker, information on how to reduce passive smoking was explained and relevant stop smoking service contact w ere given to help her mother. The pregnancy book by the Department of Health was given for general education on pregnancy and the section on rights and benefits was highlighted to help with benefits as she was unemployed. Care given was accurately recorded in accordance with NMC code (2008) to enable continuity of care. At 28 weeks plus four days, she was seen for a routine follow up antenatal appointment with the midwife. She expressed to be well, no concerns regarding fetal movement noted, no abnormalities detected with other routine examination such as symphysis fundal height measure. The appointment was used as an opportunity to assess her exposure to smoke, and to identify whether smoking cessation was maintained. Benefits of quitting were further stressed and encouragement was given. From her appointment with the smoking specialist, it was evident from documentation that improvement were being made in regards to the carbon monoxide readings as she had reduced the amount of cigarette smoked and was preparing to achieve a set date. The role of midwife in public health and health promotion Midwives have been identified as health professional responsible for identifying this target group of smokers (pregnant women).Midwives have access to the life cycle of very important group of people; therefore they play a part in the government target of reducing smoking in pregnancy (Pollock 2003). Partnership with woman is essential in achieving health promotion and maintaining government set public health targets. According to Leap, (citied in Ebert et al, 2009), ‘midwives reported their role as facilitating choice and empowering women through partnership and effective communication’. the midwifery partnership model of care Communication is an important role for midwives, in health promotion it enables continuity of care through adequate documentation, verbal interaction with women enables relationship to be formed which further improves women centred care approach. Byrd (2006) ‘states that relationship are able to persist trust and attachment developing a s long as people fulfil perceived obligations of behaviour and communication’ (Ebert et al 2009). Multidisciplinary team working to enable adequate care is provided is also a vital role of midwives in health promoting and improving public health.Midwives and nurses frequently utilise holistic concept of health to underpin practice (Beldon and Crozler 2005). Therefore when provide health promotion it is important that the women’s needs is addressed holistically in accordance with midwifery practice and not based on medical interpretation. Conclusion In conclusion, it is evident that smoking during pregnancy is an important aspect of public health and therefore an important part of midwifery practice. In particular, health promotion in daily practice is required to prevent any further complication to mothers and their unborn babies. Smoking is a major public health issue that continues to contribute to social and health inequalities.Working with Miss Yardley enabled me to provide care tailored to her needs and goal set to quit smoking and were identified by the client. Though I was unable to follow her care care through, I feel adequate support provided through the smoking cessation referral would enable her to maintain her set goal and improve her health and that of the unborn child. How to cite Smoking in pregnancy, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

I Am a Lifeguard free essay sample

In the writing titled I Am a Lifeguard written by Jonah F., I felt worried for him. His writing about saving a little girls life left me feeling almost speechless because of the impact I know that mustve had on him. This article was written so well and makes you realize how important some jobs are. Yes, it seems true that lifeguarding could be considered a boreing or perhaps easy job because it is mostly a lot of sitting, waiting and watching. However, some people dont always think about the experiences that some lifeguards may have had. The comparison, She was flailing her arms as if she was fighting off a pack of bees, uses great imagery, making it easier to picture the scene. I also love how the article ended with a strong conclusion.Sometimes even lifeguards forget this, but that day I will never forget. To me, this quote shows how much of an impact that moment obviously made on his life and how you can not take anything for granted. We will write a custom essay sample on I Am a Lifeguard or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Kodak Essays - Digital Photography, Kodak, Picture CD, Film Stock

Kodak INTRODUCTION Team Commander was tasked with providing a case analysis on Case 8, Kodak: Taking Pictures-Further. In doing so, Team Commander has provided a summary of the important case facts, current history and trends, strategic position, strategic plan, implementation plan, and the anticipated outcome. CASE SUMMARY In the fall of 1998 Kodak entered the digital camera market. Their goal was to change the clarity, usability, and life of Kodak moments- to make them bigger, better, and more enduring. Kodak set out to achieve this goal by supplying the digital camera market with its Digital Photograph Kit. The kit provided the home user with everything they need to take and share digital pictures. The kit included a Kodak DC20 Digital Camera, easy-to-use software packages, and paper for making quality prints. Also, as part of the processing the consumer received a CD, called Photo CD, which contained pictures that could be loaded onto a computer. Kodak hoped its package would be simple and attractive to consumers. However, sales were disappointing. Kodak found consumers reluctant to move away from their familiar and functional traditional cameras. In addition, this form of picture taking required the user to be wired (connected to a computer). Kodak had not anticipated the magnitude of these problems. In an effort to bridge the gap between traditional and digital cameras. Kodak teamed with Intel. The result was digitization, the ability to convert traditional film to digital format through the standard photographic processing method. By checking Picture CD on the envelope containing the regular roll of film to be developed, consumers can receive their prints and a CD containing digital images. The CD also contains all the software necessary for viewing and altering the images. The processing cost is $8.95 to $10.95. In order to fine-tune the CD marketing program, Kodak and Intel conducted hundreds of one-on-one interviews with individual consumers and conducted test markets in Salt Lake City and Indianapolis. As a result of this effort, Kodak and Intel developed advertising and promotional campaigns for Picture CD. Kodaks advertisements showed the benefits of digital imaging and emphasized that people did not have to change their picture-taking habits. While, Intel followed with advertisements that primarily focused on computer users and Pentium II processors. Kodak intended to use collaborative advertising to communicate the simplicity of digital imaging that resulted from using Kodak Picture CD and to establish a strong connection between the product and high performance PCs. In moving to digitization, Kodak has extended well beyond its initial core competencies in cameras and film. Few consumers connected the Kodak brand with computers and computer technology. Thus, Kodak linked up with computer hardware and software firms, such as Intel, Microsoft, Adobe Systems, and Hewlett-Packard. This creates a whole new product category in the consumers mind, and combining the Kodak brand with those of its computer technology partners lends digital credibility and forges a quality image. Managing its brand name is important to Kodak. However, its chief competitor, Fuji, is making this difficult. In the mid-1990s, Fuji began aggressively pursuing the U.S. market, primarily through price-cutting. Fujis price war cut into Kodaks margins at the same time that Kodak was investing heavily in digital imaging and digitization. The result was a lot of red ink for Kodak. Kodak responded by cutting more than 7,600 jobs. This boosted the 1998 second quarter operating profit margin from 14.3 percent to 18.5 percent, which far exceeded Wall Streets expectations. That is the good news. The bad news is that the red ink kept flowing in the digital imaging division. In this division alone Kodak suffered a 5 percent sales decline in the quarter and a $64 million loss, following a $400 million loss in 1997. To withstand the continuing onslaught by Fuji, Kodak intends to cut another 12,300 jobs and reduce cost by another $1 Billion. Kodak understands that cost reductions will carry the firm only so far. However, Kodak stays committed to growing its digital imaging business and feels increased revenues will be the result of this commitment. To make it there, Kodak will have to sell consumers on digital imaging and digitization. In emphasizing digital, Kodak has been criticized for not paying enough attention to such basic problems in its core camera and film

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Freuds Id, Ego, and Superego Explained

Freud's Id, Ego, and Superego Explained One of Sigmund Freud’s most well-known ideas was his theory of personality, which proposed that the human psyche is composed of three separate but interacting parts: the id, the  ego, and the superego. The three parts develop at different times and play different roles in personality, but work together to form a whole and contribute to an individuals’ behavior.  While the id, ego, and superego are often referred to as structures, they are purely psychological and don’t exist physically in the brain. Key Takeaways: Id, Ego, and Superego Sigmund Freud originated the concepts of the id, the ego, and the superego, three separate but interacting parts of the human personality that work together to contribute to an individuals behavior.While Freud’s ideas have often been critiqued and labeled unscientific, his work continues to be highly influential in the field of psychology. Origins Freud’s work wasn’t based on empirical research, but on his observations and case studies of his patients and others, so his ideas are often viewed with skepticism. Nonetheless, Freud was an enormously prolific thinker and his theories are still considered important. In fact, his concepts and theories are the foundation of psychoanalysis, an approach to psychology thats still studied today. Freud’s personality theory was influenced by earlier ideas about the mind working at conscious and unconscious levels. Freud believed that early childhood experiences are filtered through the id, ego, and superego, and it is the way an individual handles these experiences, both consciously and unconsciously, that shapes personality in adulthood. Id The earliest part of the personality to emerge is the id. The id is present at birth and runs on pure instinct, desire, and need. It is entirely unconscious and encompasses the most primitive part of the personality, including basic biological drives and reflexes. The id is motivated by the pleasure principle, which wants to gratify all impulses immediately. If the ids needs aren’t met, it creates tension. However, because all desires can’t be fulfilled right away, those needs may be satisfied, at least temporarily, through primary process thinking in which the individual fantasizes about what they desire.  Ã‚  Ã‚   Newborns’ behavior is driven by the id- they are concerned only with meeting their needs. And the id never grows up. Throughout life, it remains infantile because, as an unconscious entity, it never considers reality. As a result, it remains illogical and selfish. The ego and the superego develop to keep the id in check. Ego The second part of the personality, the ego, arises from the id. Its job is to acknowledge and deal with reality, ensuring that the id’s impulses are reigned in and expressed in ways that are socially acceptable. The ego operates from the reality principle, which works to satisfy the id’s desires in the most reasonable and realistic ways. The ego may do this by delaying gratification, compromising, or anything else that will avoid the negative consequences of going against society’s norms and rules. Such rational thinking is referred to as secondary process thinking. It’s geared towards problem-solving and reality-testing, enabling the person to maintain self-control. However, just like the id, the ego is interested in seeking pleasure, it just wants to do so in a realistic way. It’s not interested in right and wrong, but in how to maximize pleasure and minimize pain without getting into trouble. The ego operates at conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels. The ego’s consideration of reality is conscious. However, it may also keep forbidden desires hidden by unconsciously repressing them. Much of the ego’s functioning is also preconscious, meaning it happens below awareness but takes little effort to bring those thoughts into consciousness. Freud initially used the term ego to reference one’s sense of self. Often, when the term is used in everyday conversation- such as when someone is said to have a â€Å"big ego†- its still used in this sense. Yet, the term ego in Freud’s theory of personality is no longer referring to the self-concept but to functions like judgment, regulation, and control. Superego The superego is the final part of the personality, emerging between the ages of 3 and 5, the phallic stage in Freud’s stages of psychosexual development. The superego is the moral compass of the personality, upholding a sense of right and wrong. These values are initially learned from one’s parents. However, the superego continues to grow over time, enabling children to adopt moral standards from other people they admire, like teachers. The superego consists of two components: the conscious and the ego ideal. The conscious is the part of the superego that forbids unacceptable behaviors and punishes with feelings of guilt when a person does something they shouldn’t. The ego ideal, or ideal self, includes the rules and standards of good behavior one should adhere to. If one is successful in doing so, it leads to feelings of pride. However, if the standards of the ego ideal are too high, the person will feel like a failure and experience guilt. The superego not only controls the id and its impulses towards societal taboos, like sex and aggression, it also attempts to get the ego to go beyond realistic standards and aspire to moralistic ones. The superego works at both conscious and unconscious levels. People are often aware of their ideas of right and wrong but sometimes these ideals impact us unconsciously. The Mediating Ego The id, ego, and superego interact constantly. Ultimately, though, it’s the ego that serves as the mediator between the id, the superego, and reality. The ego must determine how to meet the needs of the id, while upholding social reality and the moral standards of the superego. A healthy personality is the result of a balance between the id, ego, and superego. A lack of balance leads to difficulties. If a person’s id dominates their personality, they may act on their impulses without considering the rules of society. This can cause them to spin out of control and even lead to legal troubles. If the superego dominates, the person can become rigidly moralistic, negatively judging anyone who doesn’t meet their standards. Finally if the ego becomes dominant, it can lead to an individual who is so tied to the rules and norms of society that they become inflexible, unable to deal with change, and incapable of coming to a personal concept of right and wrong. Critique Many critiques have been leveled at Freud’s theory of personality. For example, the idea that the id is the dominant component of personality is considered problematic, especially Freud’s emphasis on unconscious drives and reflexes, like the sexual drive. This perspective minimizes and oversimplifies the intricacies of human nature. In addition, Freud believed that the superego emerges in childhood because children fear harm and punishment. However, research has shown that children whose greatest fear is punishment only appear to develop morals- their real motivation is to avoid getting caught and prevent harm. A sense of morality actually develops when a child experiences love and wants to keep it. To do so, they engage in behavior that exemplifies their parents’ morals and, therefore, will gain their approval. Despite these criticisms, Freud’s ideas about the id, the ego, and the superego have been, and continue to be, highly influential in the field of psychology. Sources Cherry, Kendra. â€Å"What is Psychoanalysis?† Verywell Mind, 7 June 2018,, Kendra. â€Å"What Are the Id, Ego, and Superego?† Verywell Mind, 6 Nov. 2018,, William. Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications. 5th ed., Pearson Prentice Hall. 2005.Ego, superego, and id. New World Encyclopedia, 20 Sept. 2017,,_superego,_and_idoldid1006853McLeod, Saul. â€Å"Id, Ego and Superego.† Simply Psychology, 5 Feb. 2016, Freudian Theory of Personality.† Journal Psyche,

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Recruitment and Selection Strategy in Alqased Elevator Company Research Paper

Recruitment and Selection Strategy in Alqased Elevator Company - Research Paper Example The difficulty in the sales manager position is that it is hard to find a person who has KSA because the candidates with the required qualification are not enough to aid the whole elevator industry. Alqased Elevator Company is located in Saudi Arabia. There are no much people who meet all the requirements set by the company according to the business needs. Therefore, the company will follow deference recruitment and selection strategy which attract applicants from in and outside the country. This essay will present the recruitment and selection strategy for Elevators Company for the post of a sales manager who should have some specific qualifications which approach to the company's requirement. Recruitment is the method of recognizing and catching the attention of potential applicants from inside and outside an association to start reviewing them for approaching occupations. Once candidates are acknowledged, an association can move on to the selection procedure. This comprises gathering, computing, and evaluating records about applicants' education for a particular work. The company applies these methods to enhance the probability of appointing individuals who hold the right expertise and talents to be doing well at their employment. In order to avoid the risk of employing wrong people for a specific task, there is a need to choose a stronger and more effective recruitment strategy (Porter & Fletcher, 1978). Successful scheduling is the key to success in all fields of life. Planning the recruitment process help to make certain a positive effect with the advantages being: - Supporting to make sure the best sales manager is enlisted for the post. - Taking into consideration the requirements of the corporation. - The resourceful exercise of the time of selection board members. - Escalating the victory of catching the attention of right applicants In addition, Recruitment processes affect the company image as an employer and, sequentially, its skill to catch the attention of trained sales manager (Bechet & Walker, 1993). Recruitment planning puts forwards the concepts which are in favor of the applicants. The recruitment strategy should reveal the benefits of connecting to the firm before the potential applicant.